Time consumed by the welding process has these components - Tool approach time (from the base position) - Welding time - Time for tool movement between the welds - Tool return to base position time Other time consumed related to the welding process consists of - Material preparation time - Gripping time - Tool exchange time - Manipulation time - Times of other related steps mentioned in 6.10 Herein below we calculated the time taken by the welding process not by the related processes, as we do not have enough specific information to determine their value. Figure 45 shows the distances travelled by the FSW tool. Note that while the tool is travelling vertically, it also travels horizontally at the same time. In all the other cases the tool travels horizontally only. Figure 45: Scheme of welding with distances travelled by the tool nomenclature ## 6.11.1Tool approach timeTool approach time can be calculated as division of the tool approach distance by the speed of the fast feed of the welding head. Equation 18: Calculation of tool approach time ## 6.11.2Welding timeWelding time can be calculated dividing the total length where the welding head travels at the welding speed consisting of twice work piece approach and drift distance, twice allowance assuring the stable weld environment in the area of the stringers and the length of the weld, by the welding speed. Equation 19: Calculation of welding time ## 6.11.3Time for tool movement between the weldsTool approach time can be calculated as division of the total distance travelled by the tool head in the direction perpendicular to the stringers by the speed of the fast feed of the welding head. Equation 20: Calculation of the time for tool movement between the welds ## 6.11.4Tool return to base position timeTool return to base position time can be calculated as division of the tool return to base position distance by the speed of the fast feed of the welding head. Equation 21: Calculation of the tool return to base position time ## 6.11.5Total time of welding processThe total welding process time is a summation of all the time periods calculated before. Equation 22: Calculation of total welding process time The total time of welding process is roughly comparable with the time consumed by manufacturing of the riveted panel, however, the process of FSW can be fully automated. |

Application of friction stir welding in aircraft structures > FSW as riveting replacement on a fuselage panel >