Symbols and units


Jx,R         mm4              Modulus of rupture of the stringer used in riveted construction

Jx,i          mm4              Modulus of rupture of respective sub-areas of stringers

a            mm               Width and height of riveted stringer

t             mm               Thickness of bottom part of riveted stringer

w            mm               Width of the upper part of riveted stringer

r             mm               Diameter of riveted stringer reinforcing extension

a’           mm               Height of stringer joined by welding

t’            mm               Thickness of stringer joined by welding

Jx,FSW      mm4            Modulus of rupture of the stringer used in FS welded construction

r2024       kg.m-3          Density of 2024 material

wp          mm               Width of the both riveted and FS welded panels

ws              mm               Width of the panel sample used for FEM simulation

Fs              N                   Force applied to the panel sample

FT              N                   Total equivalent force applied to the full-scale panel

Ms,c        N.mm            Moment introduced into the symmetry plane of the panel sample

Ms          N.mm            Moment introduced into the the panel sample

lp            mm               Length of the both riveted and FS welded full-scale panels

ls                mm               Length of the both of the panel samples used for FEM simulations

tp            mm               Panel plate thickness

Jx,p          mm4              Modulus of rupture of the part of the panel plate used in FEM simulations

Mst,R       N.mm            Moment carried by the stringer sample of riveted construction panel in the FEM simulation

Mp,R        N.mm            Moment carried by the panel plate sample of riveted construction panel in the FEM simulation

Mst,FSW    N.mm            Moment carried by the stringer sample of FS welded construction panel in the FEM simulation

Mp,FSW    N.mm            Moment carried by the panel plate sample of FS welded construction panel in the FEM simulation

SR,st           mm2              Cross section surface area of the stringer for riveted panel

SFSW,st     mm2              Cross section surface area of the stringer for FS welded panel

Fs,R,st      N                   Shear force introduced into the stringer of the riveted panel

Fs,R,p       N                   Shear force introduced into the panel plate of the riveted panel

Fs,FSW,st   N                   Shear force introduced into the stringer of the FS welded panel

Fs,FSW,p   N                   Shear force introduced into the panel plate of the FS welded panel

ta            sec                Tool approach time

sta           mm               Tool approach distance

vff           mm.min-1      Fast feed speed

tw            sec                Welding time

nw           -                    Number of welds on stringers

sa,d          mm               Slow approach/drifting to/out of the work piece distance

sal           mm               Material allowance length

sw           mm               Weld length

vw           mm.min-1      Welding speed

ttm           sec                Time for tool movement between the welds

stm          mm               Overall distance travelled between the welds

tbrp          sec                Tool return to base position time

sbpr         mm               Distance from the last weld to the tool base position

tt             sec                Total time of welding process

q            N.mm-1          Value of loading applied on the panel in FEM simulation



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